Timing is Crucial

Time may be of the essence …

… but timing is crucial when selling!

Other than with the most-simple proposition, selling will involve the sales person in multiple touches or points of contact with a number of different people in the prospect’s organisation. Touches could involve, for example; phone calls, e-mail, texts, social media messaging, meetings, demonstrations or presentations.

Which people you speak to and the sequence and timing of the steps is crucial to achieving a successful outcome within an optimum timescale.

This is partly about increasing your chances of success but also about shortening the elapsed time taken to get to the point of decision. This is somewhat of a virtuous circle as getting to the decision point quickly usually increases your chances of winning as you wrong foot the competition.

Here are a few simple techniques to ensure an engagement cycle with a prospect stands the very best chance of producing a successful outcome; successful both for the prospect and the hopeful supplier.

  • Keep in mind your own ideal engagement process that you have created to give you the best chance of winning deals the; events & actions, steps & milestones, timing for each, and overall elapsed time required to get to the decision point.
    Aenea&Micah on the trapeze

    Customer-Supplier process handshake

    • As soon as you start meetings with the prospect test your engagement process to see if it works for them and if it doesn’t, agree to an amended process and timetable that works for both of you.
    • If the prospect wants to skip steps that are important to you negotiate; seek their agreement to include the events and activities you really need in the process.

Be flexible in your process; one size may not be the appropriate fit in all circumstances. The philosophy revolves around risk management and required outcomes.

  • Continually be mindful of the stage you are at and behave appropriately. A simple example; if you are calling someone to arrange the first meeting, focus purely on that objective; don’t try selling them anything other than the meeting.
  • Allow time for the two separate functions of relationship building and opportunity identification & pursuit.
    • Plan time to nurture each separate contact and don’t assume because you know one person well the good karma will automatically transfer to others; account engagement is actually a series of new business encounters.
    • Be clear in your mind as to what you want to achieve at each touch point and focus on that.
    • Be sincere; don’t pretend you are trying to become best buddies when all parties know your sole objective is to secure a deal for your company. No one minds this but what people don’t like is pretence.
  • Identify or create requirements? If the prospect says “I need/want ….” then of course you respond to that in a positive manner but there could be hidden opportunities that the prospect may not have recognised.
    • When talking about a stated requirement always look for opportunities to upsell or cross sell.
    • Be ready to be pushed back; explore the objection politely and positively and if the prospect is adamant then revert to dealing with the requirement as stated, but don’t forget, the additional opportunity you spotted is something for the future.

If you consider applying just one new technique to your own engagement approach then make it this one.

  • NEVER consider a step in your agreed engagement process to be complete until you have agreed a date and time for the next step; don’t leave a meeting having agreed to produce a proposal without putting a date in the prospect’s diary for the meeting when you present your proposal.

This is all about keeping things simple; I see a lot of situations where the tendency is to over-complicate the processes of customer engagement and opportunity pursuit.  This often leads to protracted timescales and an increased risk that the prospect will do nothing or they will go ahead with a supplier who is willing and able to move quickly.  Make sure it’s you that moves quickly and you will win more business.

First published on  LinkedIn Pulse


Proposals – first impressions count

In times past the sales person would engage with a number of people in the prospect’s organisation but would rarely get to meet the senior executives who would be involved in the decision. This lead to the provision of a short, easy to read, section that those executive decision makers could use to gain an understanding of the key points of the proposal without the need to read the whole document. It has become common practice with written proposals that the first section is an Executive Summary; but is it still good practice?

Regardless of whether, as previously recommended, you have met all decision makers before submitting a proposal, there is still an important role for an executive summary as everyone is time poor these days so providing a concise overview of the key points of your proposed solution for all readers makes perfect sense. But, should it be an “Executive Summary”? We recommend Proposal Overview or Solution Summary.

The summary should always be created before the rest of the proposal; yes before!  I am always horrified when I hear that a proposal has been written by a number of people in the supplier’s business then passed to the sales person to top and tail; to add the summary and financials.  The sales person should own the solution being proposed and the way to make this happen is that they describe that solution in the summary before any other work is done on the proposal.  The summary is then used by the sales person to brief everyone else that will be involved in creating the proposal.

When the proposal is presented to the prospect, some people will read just the summary, others will read the summary and the sections that cover their area of interest and others will read the whole document. So, the content needs to be structured to ensure whichever approach is used, the reader will understand fully what you are proposing and the implications for them.

Here are some tips on creating and presenting a good proposal summary:

  • The sales person should by now have a clear picture of the problem the prospect needs to solve and an equally clear idea of what they need to do to win the business – the win strategy.
  • Having established that a formal written proposal is what the prospect wants to see, agree what the proposal will cover and whether the prospect has a preferred structure.
  • The sales person should now create the proposal summary that will address the following:
    • An overview of the problem the prospect needs to solve and their vision of the desired outcome
    • An overview of the supplier’s understanding of that problem which will include their experience of solving similar problems
    • All the key selling messages that will be expanded upon throughout the document.
    • The key points that differentiate your solution
    • A summary of the financial offer
    • Embedded navigation aids to help people find further detail in the rest of the document.

The sales person can now use the summary to walk through their proposed approach with their key contacts and coaches in the prospect and take the opportunity to:

  • Identify any points which may be contentious and test them; if they are uncomfortable agree how you will re-word or re-present the point.
  • Leverage their knowledge of the other people who will read the proposal to ensure everything you are saying will be well received.
  • Take the opportunity to conduct a trial close – effectively asking the question “based on this summary how likely are you to go ahead and award us the business?
  • Agree a date and time when you will present the final document.

The sales person now has all the guidance they need to complete the document ready for that presentation deadline.

One final thought

If the prospect doesn’t want a written proposal, perhaps preferring our recommended approach of an interactive workshop as the vehicle to present your solution, how can you provide a proposal summary?

Basically nothing changes.  The sales person should still summarise the proposed solution and use it to brief colleagues, they should still walk through what they will be saying with the main contact in the prospect and finalise it ready for the interactive workshop.  The workshop will be built around a number of presentation slides, one for each main section, commencing with the summary.  Following the workshop the sales person is in a position to write and present the final proposal based on the original plus modifications agreed during the workshop.

Kiplings 6 honest serving men


Exceptional sales people ask questions; everyone else answers them.

If your working life involves you in any type of sales or selling activities then the effective use of questions is not only an essential skill it is also a critical success factor. Anyone who does not possess such skill is at a disadvantage to sales people from your competitors who do.

Seeing questioning as just a selling skill is a mistake as questions and questioning are invaluable tools that enable and facilitate effective communication in all walks of life. Common examples in business include; recruitment, coaching, appraisals, management and quality auditing, in fact; anywhere that there is a need to explore what another person knows or is thinking. Questions also have other valuable communication applications as I will explain a little later.

While the importance of questions, especially within the context of sales, has been explored by many, my recent experience with front line sales people, their managers and sales training professionals suggests that the real significance of questions in communication has by and large been lost. People may have read a book or attended a course where questioning is one of the topics but then it is simply added to the other tools in the box when it should be the primary communication tool when selling.

Much is said about different types of questions; the two main categories being closed and open. Simplistically, closed questions elicit a basic yes/no answer, whereas open questions require the other party to provide some detail. One common way of recognising open questions is that they all start with; who, what, where, when, why and how.

I keep six honest serving men
They taught me all I knew
There names are What, and Where and When;Kiplings 6 honest serving men
and Why and How and Who.

I send them over land and sea,
I send them east and west;
But after they have worked for me,
I give them all a rest.

I let them rest from nine till five,
For I am busy then,
As well as breakfast, lunch, and tea,
For they are hungry men.

from The Elephant’s Child; Just So Stories by Rudyard Kipling 1902.

Some commentators give the impression that closed questions are bad; they are not but they need to be used sparingly and in the right place within the overall communication. Also, there are a number of different types of closed question for example; the assumptive “would I be right to assume (or think) that …” and the alternative “would you prefer A or B?” The result is always the same you basically get a yes or no answer which is very useful in some circumstances.

So, it seems quite straight forward; closed = yes/no and open = an answer rich in useful information.
Easy tiger; not so simple.


The starting point is to treat questions and questioning as a standard part of the way you communicate. The moment you start thinking about questions and questioning as a technique or worse still a ‘trick’ you have lost the most powerful thing that good questioning can do for you; gain trust.

Questioning ‘techniques’ in sales often focus on trying to lead the prospect to a place where the seller wants them to be. In such a scenario, salespeople use questions to box the prospect into a place where they can present their proposition (demonstrate their product) and their perspective of the benefits and value they think they can deliver. It makes me cringe when I hear a questioning thread along the lines of “How beneficial would it be if you could … ?” The question is invariably structured to elicit a positive response “Well that would be really useful” and is then followed with something like “Well by using our … you can do that.

While the above simple example uses an open question such scenarios are destined to result in a closed outcome as the prospect will in most cases have been led to place they did not want to be. Might this be a common cause of people become unavailable when you call to follow up on a meeting or proposal that you sent after the meeting?

Rather than using questions to take the prospect to where the seller wants them to be, might it be more productive to help the prospect understand where they need to be and once the parties have a common and mutual understanding of where that is the seller can commence the process of presenting their solution to the agreed need?

So what makes for a really great question?

Some time back I sold my IT businesses to a US company and I stayed with them for 5 years reporting to the CEO in a range of roles all of which included me having sales and marketing responsibility for various bits of the world. From time to time I would get an unexpected call from the CEO who would start with a question “Hi Phil; what’s happening?” Now that really is a great question and in just two words it opens up the widest possible field of play. Of course, what you say when asked a question like this is whatever is uppermost in your mind which is also probably whatever is troubling you most so, with the purity and accuracy of a laser, the question got the boss to what really needed his attention.

Such direct questions work between people who know each other well, particularly when it’s the boss doing the asking but such directness is not appropriate in most cases between seller and prospect. Also, if you are speaking to a new prospect “what’s happening” is too general so you cannot predict what sort of response you might get. So, best not used early in the relationship but as it develops the approach might become relevant. In my experience customers often appreciate a relationship with a supplier where trust and mutual respect permits them to challenge each other.

There are ways to ask questions similar to “what’s happening” in the early stages of a sales prospecting cycle; but how might it help the conversation if you provided a context? This could be something like “I see from the trade press that recruitment is a real issue in your industry; how is that impacting on your business?” or “I saw on your website/annual report/newsletter that …, what impact is that having on your plan to open the new office?” Other sources of contextual material could be legislation or the economic environment.

Another contextual dimension involves giving due consideration to the background and interests of the person you are speaking to. The questions you would ask an FD, the chief engineer or the marketing director will be quite different. For example; the FD will be interested in RoI, the engineer will be more interested in specification and performance and the marketing director may want to know about the likely impact on say brand image; but each could also have their own perspective on the same topic, depending on how it impacts them.

When you have met the prospect or customer on a number of occasions you will have more knowledge about what is actually happening in the business so the context questions can move to “What is the current situation with your …?” or “Since we finished the project how have the … improved?” better still “I was thinking about [something in their business]; how useful would be to you to reduce that/speed it up, etc.?” The term is overused but this is an example of how a supplier can become a ‘trusted advisor’ to a customer; the scope is limited to relevant business matters but none the less the opportunity is there and that puts the seller in a strong position compared to new suppliers who try to muscle in.

Many sales people feel uncomfortable with the idea of advising the customer on their business or challenging them on something they have said they want to do. How can a sales person be an expert on a customers’ business? You are not an expert on their business; you are an expert on yours and how it can help businesses like your customer’s to achieve its goals. Recognising this distinction and working on this basis will help to shape your questions.

Similarly, when asking challenging questions the sales person is not challenging what the customer wants to achieve but how they are thinking of going about achieving it.

19 tips on using questions effectively

  • The first rule of asking questions; ask, shut up, listen, assimilate and only then respond – to what you have actually heard not with what you have pre-prepared.
  • Having asked, listen and wait for the answer. If the other person is taking their time responding don’t break the silence be patient and wait for the answer. If they pause while thinking or formulating their answer, don’t interrupt, be patient and wait for the complete answer. Silences can seem interminable with a few seconds feeling like an eternity – practise being patient and it will serve you well. Having listened and assured yourself that they have finished but you feel there could me more information to come ask a supplementary question such as “What else would be useful for you to have?
  • Remember questioning is not a technique or trick; it is a powerful communication tool.
  • Closed questions are just as useful as open ones when used correctly, e.g. to confirm understanding.
  • Questions can be used to progress any type of conversation and they are an antidote to the traditional selling technique of bombarding the prospect with features hoping they will submit. Questions enable the supplier to establish what the prospect needs not what the supplier wants to sell.
  • Ask questions to elicit answers that will matter to the prospect as well as to you. By doing this you are creating an interactive and progressive conversation not a one-way diatribe.
  • Use questions to explore all the possibilities not limit them.
  • Not all questions are born equal; while there may be a few killer questions that really make the other person think, most are quite basic with the simple purpose of progressing the conversation towards the preferred outcome.
  • While the primary purpose of questions is to; elicit information, check understanding, gain agreement, etc., there is an oft ignored benefit to the person asking; a well-crafted question speaks volumes about the person asking it. In a question such as “How valuable would it be to you if … happened?”, the subject matter alerts the person being asked to the fact that you understand their business issues and what might matter to them; asking the question tells them something about you.
  • Good questions make people think – ever found yourself half way through answering a question only to start to question what you are saying? People often have prepared positions on common subjects and a provocative or challenging question is a useful way to get the other person to question what they really think
  • Questions can be an effective way to steer a conversation; not to a false location but to where it really should be. Questions are also good for ‘shaping’ a need by refining the possibilities and therefore creating greater focus eventually leading to mutual agreement.
  • Don’t try to prod, prompt or interrogate; the purpose of questions is to create a conversation that flows naturally towards a logical conclusion.
  • Questions are a useful way of testing what someone has said “Would I be right that you want …?” This is a good use of a closed question and if the answer is “No” it will typically lead the person to expand and thus provide what is effectively an open answer to a closed question.
  • If you’re asked to repeat a question, consider asking it differently – might they be unclear about it rather than they didn’t hear it?
  • If people resist answering, consider re-asking later in the conversation rather than immediately after the first attempt. The approach should be one of patient, polite, persistence but always be aware of signs that the other person really may not want to answer on a particular point.
  • If you sense, or know from something already said by others, that an answer is incomplete ask a subsidiary question such as “What else would you like to see as part of the solution?
  • Asking similar questions of different people in the same organization will deepen your knowledge as you are not limited to the opinions of one person.
  • You may find yourself in the position that you know something but you need it confirmed by the decision maker who you are now meeting. So, a valid use of questions is to ask the decision maker about what you already know where the purpose is to ensure the information in the answer is ‘officially’ on the table.
  • Questioning should be planned and structured but not prescriptive:
    • If you are new to sales by all means write out some questions before a meeting but as soon as possible drop this habit as pre-prepared questions sound like a script.
    • A script interferes with the free flow of conversation as each question, after the opener, should be triggered by the previous response and you cannot know what this will be before the meeting has commenced.
    • Rather than questions your preparation should be to list down the topics you want to cover, the logical running order and above all the outcome you are aiming for. Just like planning a journey; you know the start point and the planned destination but not the beneficial diversions that may be encountered en-route?
    • Take notes, politely, then if something comes up outside the sequence or list of topics you were expecting you can choose to deal with it at the time or leave it until the end.

The effective use of questions helps both parties to think progressively moving them together to a common understanding. Getting people to think, not about their situation but about the possibilities, opens their minds which can lead to them accepting new and creative solutions. The role of the sales person should in part be about helping the prospect to visualise how, with the help of the supplier, to bridge the gap between where they are now, and where they need/want their business to be.

Snakes and Ladders anyone?

It’s the festive season and a time for games; but what game will your business be playing in the New Year?

Snakes & Ladders was a family favourite at one time but I am sure it won’t be played in many homes in 2015. However, it is still seems to be a firm favourite of many businesses. snakes-and-ladders-games2-e14495011718631You know the feeling; you work hard, get warm feedback and seem to be progressing up the ladders but suddenly the decision on your proposal is delayed with no new date set; you’ve hit a square with a snake’s head, you slither down a few layers and have to start climbing back again.

Such interruptions to progress can manifest themselves in many parts of the business but we are focusing on three leading areas of the business where landing on the snake’s head not only retards your progress but can also have a domino effect:

  • Relationships with prospect or customers; seem to be developing well but at some point suffer a sudden reversal that proves difficult to recover from.
  • Proposals; seem like the final stage in a smooth bidding process but suddenly the prospect is incommunicado or stalls about making the decision.
  • Sales recruits; had great promise but fall short of your expectations once they are doing the job.

There is one common factor that applies to all of these; you think you know how you are positioned but unbeknown to you the other party has a different idea. There is a closer link between the root cause of this issue and Snakes and Ladders than you might think.

It is easy to feel out of control and blameless when playing Snakes and Ladders as progress through the game is dependent on the way the dice fall which is of course random. All too often the approach to developing customer relationships, pursuing opportunities and recruiting sales people is conducted like a game of chance. Imagine how easy things would be if you could determine the score that would come from each throw of the dice; fortunately such certainty is achievable, not with Snakes and Ladders, but in the aforementioned areas of business performance.

Customer relationships

The key to creating solid customer relationships that will endure and strengthen over time is to base them on what the customer needs from the relationship rather than what you need. Of course if what the customer needs fails to deliver something that is acceptable to you then the relationship will not last and should therefore not be started. You need to ensure that your engagement process enables you to spot these situations early enough that you don’t waste a lot of time before deciding to abandon the pursuit.

Getting customer relationship building right is relatively simple but it does bring with it the potential for conflict and this is something that many people avoid. In my experience, rather than avoiding conflict, appreciating the potential for it to arise and managing it successfully will always deliver a better result and it is a crucial commercial skill to employ when building relationships.

If your objective is to avoid conflict this also means you will be avoiding asking important questions. For example; in the process of building a relationship with a potential new customer you will need to discuss and agree the commercial terms for any business that you might do together so you will need to ask questions. But all too often suppliers do not ask the questions early enough to effectively handle potential objections for fear that it will create a disagreement that might damage their chances. Surely it is better to get this topic out of the way early, before it becomes the primary deciding factor, than do a lot of work before discovering business that you might do will be unprofitable or will involve unacceptable commercial terms?

A few tips on relationship building:

  • At an early stage ask the punchy questions. Here are few examples to get you thinking. Do we meet your criteria to become a supplier? How likely are you to ask us to tender for business? Is there anything about our company, our proposition, or the people you have met that might put you off working with us?
  • Ensure you fully understand the decision making process and landscape; who gets involved in decisions and what process do they have that you will be expected to align with? Once you understand the full list of those involved in decision making ensure you meet all of them. This will equip you with multiple lines of communication that will help you if the primary point of access becomes difficult to contact at some point.
  • Don’t confuse relationship building with pursuing specific pieces of work. If you start to pursue a piece of work before you have a complete relationship your chances of being successful are diminished. Many companies have a sales approach whereby sales people do not spend time with a prospect until there is an opportunity to bid for and while this may seem like an efficient use of time it is not an effective way to maximise your success rate for winning new work.

Following these steps will help to ensure the dice falls more favourably and you are better prepared to avoid the squares with snakes’ heads.

Proposals getting stuck

We have discussed this issue in other articles so I will just provide a refresher on the key points of the approach we recommend.

  • Picking up from the previous topic; don’t bid for work until you have a sufficiently established relationship to understand the dynamics of the customer’s decision making process and what will motivate them to decide. Understanding your customer and what matters in their business will help you to craft winning proposals.
  • The right time to present a proposal is when the customer is ready to evaluate what you have to say in the light of a decision they are trying to make – not when your sales process says it is time. All too often I see sales people who have a first meeting with a new prospect and they close the meeting by saying “would you like a proposal?” – few prospects will say No either because they are too polite or because they would like some free research and insight.
  • A quotation is not a proposal. A proposal is “A plan or suggestion, especially a formal or written one, put forward for consideration.” The whole point about a proposal is that it should provide a vision of what the future will look like if the prospect goes ahead with what you are proposing. With a quotation the only thing the prospect can consider is the price you are quoting in which case they are likely to haggle.
  • Before presenting a proposal ensure you have an agreement with the prospect for all the steps and stages from proposal presentation through to final decision. If they cannot tell you what is going to happen it probably means they don’t have a real intention of making a decision at all. Don’t be shy to politely decline to bid – they will respect you for this, it will probably strengthen the relationship and you are more likely to be told when there is a real opportunity to bid for.

Again, the above steps will help determine the score you get on the dice.

Sales recruits falling below expectation

I regularly hear complaints that recruiting good sales people is very difficult these days. As we undertake recruitment projects for customers I can confirm that it is tough but it is still doable. Early in 2015 we undertook an assignment to recruit 12 account managers and completed the project in just under six-weeks – so it can be done.

One of the main difficulties arises because the investment in training and development in sales and selling skills has been progressively cut since the mid 1990’s. So; finding well trained and qualified sales people is difficult and as a result a lot of recruitment decisions are made on the basis of taking the best of the bunch rather than just the people who meet the standard you are seeking. In effect, the seeds of disappointment have been sown even before the person joins you.

If you want sales people to be successful you need to create a fully integrated contiguous process that consists of ALL of the following steps:

  • Create a job definition that truly matches your expectations for the role – don’t try looking for a ‘Superman’.
  • Create an advert or other candidate sourcing techniques to match the nature of the job.
  • Ensure your evaluation and selection process is rigorous and independent of any influences other than the desire to recruit people that fully match the job profile. If you use external agencies to source candidates use different people to help in the final selection.
  • Once you decide you are recruiting someone prepare thoroughly for their arrival. You need to consider on-boarding but also a comprehensive induction into your company.
  • During the selection process you will have identified their strengths and weaknesses; ensure their manager is fully briefed on the particular support they will need and an appropriate training programme is scheduled early in their tenure.
  • Ensure that all tools and collateral they need to do the job are ready for their arrival, but more particularly ensure that they understand the nuances of what you provide that makes you different from competitors.
  • To be truly successful sales people need to operate within a regime of proactive sales leadership where the most important facet is regular one-on-one coaching by the line manager and periodic training/refreshers.

Regardless of experience or track record a newly recruited sales person is raw material to your organisation and the responsibility for turning them into a fully effective employee rests with you, the employer. This may sound like hard work but it is much less effort than will be expended struggling with under-performance, or staff churn and the need to regularly re-recruit. Doing all of the above goes a long way to helping you to dictate the score on the dice.

In summary

If you want to load the dice in your favour and avoid the snakes’ heads you need to create the right foundations as outlined above. If you get all of this right you can begin to play with a reasonable expectation of winning as you will progressively be able to accurately forecast the outcome.

Joining the buyer’s journey, but where are they?

Tom Pisello has sparked us to revisit this topic to see the latest thinking; how much of their journey is complete before they make contact varies upwards from 57% and I have even seen numbers around 80%.

For those who have not seen this before, the concept is that as a result of the internet people wishing to purchase a product or solution can do their own research, decide what they want to buy, create a shortlist of possible suppliers and only then contact those suppliers.  If the intended purchase is straightforward; a washing machine, laptop computer, accounting package for a small business, etc., then the process may provide a good result for the customer but the supplier is largely relegated to a passenger on the buying journey.

The early bird still catches the worm!

The early bird still catches the worm!

However for more complex problems the internet is far less useful and the prospective buyer will need to engage with suppliers at a much earlier stage.  Add to that circumstances that businesses do not yet see as problems and only when approached by a sales person do they realise that not only do they have a problem but oh joy! there is already a solution available.  By way of an example consider low energy lighting; this is a solution that can cut electricity bills by 80%, is maintenance free, comes with a 10 year guarantee and will repay the initial investment in 30 months or so.  Few businesses have the foresight to research this problem/solution though.

The issue for the supplier is not so much being a passenger on the buying journey but the increased risk of missing the train altogether.

Tom Pisello, The RoI Guy, Founder of Alinean has written an excellent blog Early Bird Catches Worm based on research into this topic.

Whether you subscribe to the current fashion of The Challenger Sale, Tom’s route to “establish the clear path from vision to value” or are more traditional, following the Solution or Consultative approach to selling, our message is the same; engage early, educate the customer in the issues they have not yet acknowledged and shape the opportunity towards your solution.

The Challenger Sale: What It Means For Your Business

The Challenger Sale presents new sales thinking from the Corporate Executive Board.  Based on research conducted with over 6,000 sales reps across geographies and industries, results reveal that sales reps fall into one of five profiles:

  1. The Hard Worker
  2. The Problem Solver
  3. The Challenger
  4. The Relationship Builder
  5. The Lone Wolf

Of these, the Relationship Builder is the profile most companies expect to be successful, but is in fact the least successful profile in today’s selling environment.  Instead, the Challenger is the most successful by a mile.  The Challenger is the person who really understands how to improve business performance better than the business (s)he is selling to.  The good news is that much of what makes a good Challenger can be taught and nurtured with the support of the wider selling organisation.